African Muslim Slaves in the Americas: An Understudied Presence


For three hundred and fifty years, Muslim men, women, and children, victims of the general insecurity that the Atlantic slave trade and the politico-religious conflicts in West Africa fostered, were sold in the New World. They were among the very first Africans to be shipped, and among the very last. When they reached the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, after a horrific journey, they introduced a second monotheistic religion (after the arrival of Catholicism and before Protestantism) into post-Columbian America. Islam was also the first revealed religion freely followed – as opposed to imposed Christianity – by the Africans who were transported to the New World. …

Literate, urban, and in some cases well traveled, the Muslims realized incomparable feats in the countries of their enslavement. They came as Muslims and they lived as Muslims. The preservation of their faith and the maintenance of their lifestyle in a hostile Christian environment were in themselves no small accomplishments. Yet many historians and writers have not acknowledged their presence, much less their success at upholding their religion. The most widely held opinion among writers on slavery and on Islamic issues in the Americas is that “what Muslim faith they brought with them was quickly absorbed in their new Christian milieu and disappeared.”[1] A few scholars in the United States have recently recognized some famous Muslims and published their stories, but these figures have remained individuals, not part or representatives of a wider community, whose presence and achievements remain unknown. …

With remarkable determination they maintained an intellectual life in mentally sterile surroundings. … In freedom as in enslavement, Islam was the hope of the Muslims, their strength and their comfort. … Notwithstanding the limits imposed on them by their subordinate status, many succeeded in following, to the letter, the principles of Islam. … At the same time, paradoxically, Islam was the engine of upward mobility within the structure of slavery. …

African Muslims arrived in the Americas with a tradition of Arabic literacy that they struggled to preserve. After years of study in Koranic schools and centers of higher learning, they refused to let enslavement turn them into mere beasts of burden. They kept on reading the Koran and writing in Arabic, and they even established schools. Their literacy not only set them apart from most slaves and many slaveholders but became the basis of their disproportionate influence in slave communities and, in some instances, their key to freedom. …

Well organized and a galvanizing force, Islam in America was the catalyst of revolt and insubordination. It played a major part in the most elaborate slave uprisings and was the motivating force that sent freed men and women back to Africa. …      Because Islam as brought by the Africans did not outlive the last slaves, one might think that the Muslims failed, that their story in the Americas speaks of defeat and ultimate subjugation. Through examining their history, their stories, and their legacy, however, this book reveals that what they wrote on the sand of the plantations is a successful story of strength, resilience, courage, pride, and dignity. …

Turbaned men and veiled women, their prayer beads around their necks, chopped cotton, cut cane, and rolled tobacco from sunup to sundown. Like other slaves, they were beaten, whipped, cursed, raped, maimed, and humiliated. They saw their families torn apart and their loved ones killed. In the midst of abuse and contempt, they continued to pray, fast, be charitable, read, write on the sand, help one another, sing their lonesome tunes, and display pride in themselves, their religion, and their culture.

The African Muslims may have been, in the Americas, the slaves of Christian masters, but their minds were free. They were the servants of Allah.


Excerpted (with permission) from Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas by Sylviane A. Diouf, Ph.D., New York University Press, 1998.

[1] Caesar Farah, Islam (Hauppauge, N.Y.: Barron’s, 1994), 307.


Further Reading

Servants of Allah by Sylviane A. Diouf

The Life of Oman ibn Said




  1. Asis says:

    what about the Arabs who brought Islam to Africa? and the enslavement of Africans who later converted to Islam.I mean I know Islam is a more gentle religion but there were Africans sold by Arabs too

  2. Janet says:

    I’m not a Muslim but Mohamed showed the world what kind of government he wanted to establish, by honoring a black slave to stand on top of the kaaba (above every body else) to make the first Adan (call for Muslim prayer)…

  3. Tracey says:

    Mankind was created from one soul which was that of our father Adam (peace and blessings be upon him). Islam isn’t about race or color. We were all created to Worship The Creator of the Heaven and Earth namely ALLAH. Black, white, Brown, Yellow, Red, Green, Polka dot etc., etc., The Prophet Muhammad (Peace and Blessings be upon him) established a government which adhered to The Legislations of The Almighty ALLAH, It isn’t a black thing or a white thing. There is no place in Islam for Racism. The first racist was the Shaitaan (Devil) when he refused to prostrate (bow down) to our father Adam when he was commanded to do so by ALLAH, he refused because he claimed he was created better than humans.

  4. Sonya Savoy says:

    Muslims trick them they were Banta then they were sold into slavary

  5. Sonya Savoy says:

    it was the muslims that enslave the white learn the muslim history if u are muslim

  6. Sonya Savoy says:

    Muslims is out to kill everyone that isn't Muslims they can trick the blacks but us whites. Bring the holy war on. the slaves weren't beaten how did they work if they were beaten more Muslim lies let Muslims wipe out our history like they did the black people history. Why do you think most blacks didn't go back to Africa because the did want to live under Sharia Law are have their kitty cat all cut up by a savages. learn ur slave history to not the lies that been told to spread hate, reason u have mulattos is because the slave owner want a stronger white male slave to work the fields in the hot sun so he breed the white slaves n blacks and they slept in same slaves quarters as the blacks why do u think after slavery that black slaves didn't get much land it went to mulattos who pass their self off as Cajuns I hate you lying as Yankees go older family member to tell u the truth. And blacks were getting marry to whites in Louisiana it was against the law but they did before the civil war

  7. Sudjanamihardja Elan says:

    what i read:
    I’m not a Muslim but Mohamed showed the world what kind of government he wanted to establish, by honoring a black slave to stand on top of the kaaba (above every body else) to make the first Adan (call for Muslim prayer)…

    i say "he shalla-lLaahu 'alaihi wa sallam is a blessing for all mankind"

  8. Maricarmen Kenney says:


  9. Denise Nord says:

    African slaves embraced Christianity and embraced Jesus Christ as their Savior, when they came to American. And by the way, they were sold into slavery by their own African people.

  10. That's true in some cases, but not all, however both Islam and Christianity are the same in term of enslaving African people, they're all the same.

  11. Whose ships were they chained on and abused and humane rights taken away by whom when they were brought to the Americas ? Wrong is wring even if everyone is doing it , and right is right even if you are the only one doing it . What you said maybe true but who was the ones who enslaved these Muslims and some were forced to become Christian .

  12. Everyone keeps saying do your research…being that most of sound like you've done some so call research.We still have different opinions.Which can you say is correct??

  13. We did not embrace Christianity or Jesus Christ of our own free will. we were given a choice, accept Christianity/Jesus Christ, or die.

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